Canine Acral Mutilation Syndrome | Animal Genetics

Links

New Equine Test

Immune-Mediated Myositis (IMM)
New test available for Quarter Horses and related breeds. Please see Immune-Mediated Myositis (IMM)

Equine Test

Equine Speed and Distance
Please see: Performance Testing

New Spring Coupon

Save During The Month of April
Please see code: Spring2019

New Canine Test

Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (NCL) in Golden Retrievers
Please see: Golden Retriever NCL

New Canine Test

Coat Color Dilution
Please see: Dilute2

New Canine Test

Pug Dog Encephalitis (PDE)
Please see: PDE

New Canine Test

Ichthyosis Test For American Bulldog
Please see: Ichthyosis Testing

New Canine Test

Dermatomyositis (DMS)
Please see: Dermatomyositis (DMS) Testing

New Canine Test

Susceptibility to Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)
Please see: IVDD Testing

Equine Test

Testing for Warmblood Fragile Foal Syndrome (WFFS)
Please see: WFFS Testing

New Equine Test

Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)
New test available for Horses. Please see Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

New Equine Test

Occipitoatlantoaxial Malformation Test for Arabian Horses (OAAM)
New test available for Horses. Please see Occipitoatlantoaxial Malformation (OAAM)




Acral Mutilation Syndrome (AMS)

Description:

Acral Mutilation Syndrome (AMS) is a rare autosomal-recessive genetic disorder that affects sensation in the extremities of dogs. This results in progressive mutilation of their pads and paws due to the absence of pain. Affected dogs will over-groom, lick, or bite their pads and paws to the point of bleeding and ulceration. Often times, affected puppies will also be smaller than the rest of their littermates.

 

In severe cases, the dog will sever claws, digits, and footpads resulting in swollen, reddened paws, paronychia (infection of the tissue adjacent to the nail), ulceration on the bottom and top of the paws, nail loss, and painless fractures. Single or multiple feet can be affected, though dogs can walk without pain or lameness. Motor skills, coordination, and reflexes all appear to be normal.

 

A mutation in the regulatory region of GDNF reduces levels of GDNF protein, which affects the axon development in the neurons of the dog. This is what decreases pain and temperature sensation in the dog.

 

Issues associated with AMS include bacterial and fungal infections, as well as ulcers. Elizabethan cones and anti-anxiety medicine are used to cope with the disease. If the disorder proves to be unmanageable, euthanasia is commonplace.

Because AMS is recessive, a dog must inherit a copy of the mutation from each parent in order to be affected. No signs of AMS will appear if the dog has only one copy of the mutation, although it will be a carrier of the disease. When breeding two carriers together, there is a 25% chance per puppy born that it will develop symptoms of AMS.

Acceptable Sample Types:

Animal Genetics accepts buccal swab, blood, and dewclaw samples for testing. Complimentary sample collection kits are available and can be ordered at Canine Test Now.

This Test Is Relevant For the Following Breeds:

  • English Cocker Spaniel
  • English Springer Spaniel
  • French Spaniels
  • German Shorthair Pointer
  • English Pointer
  • Miniature Schnauzer

Results:

Animal Genetics offers DNA testing for canine Acral Mutilation Syndrome (AMS). The genetic test verifies the presence of the recessive mutation and presents results as one of the following:

AMS/AMS Affected Dog is homozygous positive for the mutation associated with Acral Mutilation Syndrome.
n/AMS Carrier Dog has one copy of the mutation associated with Acral Mutilation Syndrome.
n/n Clear Dog is negative for the mutation associated with Acral Mutilation Syndrome.

References:

Plassais J, Lagoutte L, Correard S, Paradis M, Guaguère E, HeÂdan B, et al. (2016): A Point Mutation in a lincRNA Upstream of GDNF Is Associated to a Canine Insensitivity to Pain: A Spontaneous Model for Human Sensory Neuropathies. PLoS Genet 12(12): e1006482. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006482.